Paper Making

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Raw Materials

Linen, Cotton, Esparto, Timber, Straw, Hemp


Paper is made from plant fibers, but only certain kinds of plant fibers can create usable paper. The raw material needs to first be washed clean, then reduced to pulp, strained to extract the fiber, then pressed and heated to dry it.

1. Boiling, beating and maceration to separate and suspend the cellulose fibre in water, with addition of chemicals and other substances to remove impurities, improve opacity, reduce ink absorption, de-ink waste paper etc (“wet end”)

2. Filtering to form a matted sheet of fibre (“forming section”)

3. Pressing and compacting the wet sheet to squeeze out the water (“press section”)

4. Evaporation of the remaining moisture (“drier section”)

5. Feeding of the dry sheet, with any additional treatment such as coating, on to reels (“calendar section”)